Manny founded IDP in 1997 (in conjunction with our original sponsor, New York State Defenders Association). A nationally known expert on the immigration consequences of criminal convictions, he is the author of several legal resource materials for advocacy on behalf of immigrants accused of crimes, including Representing Immigrant Defendants in New York (5th ed, 2011) and the Removal Defense Checklist in Criminal Charge Cases, and provides training and immigration law backup assistance on criminal/immigration issues. Manny has also engaged in and supported litigation defending the legal rights of immigrants placed in removal proceedings based on criminal charges. Prior to his work with IDP, Manny represented and counseled immigrants for eight years as a staff and supervising attorney of the New York City Legal Aid Society Immigration Unit. Manny has received numerous awards for his advocacy work on behalf of immigrants, including, most recently, a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and a Jack Wasserman Award for Excellence in Litigation in the Field of Immigration Law from the American Immigration Lawyers Association.